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Different Types of Refrigerants

In the last decade the manufacturer developed different types of refrigerants.  The mechanical vapor compression cycle utilizes the evaporation of a refrigerant to absorb the heat, which will lead to lower the temperature of the surrounding of the evaporator. The first refrigerant used in the word was Ether in 1834 when Perkins proposed a hand…

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NITROGEN PRODUCTION FROM AIR

In this article we will answer how is nitrogen is produced for industrial chemical process? Nitrogen production from air. Nitrogen is produced from dry air as we know by volume the air is composed of 78.09% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, 0.93% argon, 0.04% carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases. Three types of unit or…

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TOP 6 PRESSURE RELIEF CODES AND STANDARDS

Pressure Safety and Relief Valves (PSV) are totally directed by codes and regulations. The four most important codes and standards for PSVs (safety valve standards) are ASME (USA), API (USA), ISO (international) and PED (Europe). ASME and API Safety Valve Standards for PRV. We will try simplifies the main objective of the API and ASME…

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How to Read P&ID Piping and Instrumentation Diagram for non-process engineer?

How to Read P&ID In this Article we will develop the rule of how to read P&ID. The P&ID is the diagram the most frequently used by the operators, maintenance and safety. Legends and P&ID Abbreviations. Margins. Equipment. Effluent Routes. Instrument Location. ControlLoop. LEGENDS AND ABBREVIATIONS. To comprehend the PID, see the legends and abbreviations…

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Instrumentation Abbreviations Table – P&ID

OIL AND GAS, INSTRUMENTATION ABBREVIATIONS TABLE (Adapted From ISA Standard S5.1). – A – – A – A Analog Signal. AC Analysis Controller. AAH Analysis Alarm [High]. AAHL Analysis Alarm [High/Low]. AAL Analysis Alarm [Low] AS Air Supply ASDH Analysis Shutdown [High] ASDL Analysis Shutdown [Low] ASH Analysis Switch [High] ASHL Analysis Switch [High/Low] ASL Analysis…

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PSSR – Pre-Startup Safety Review | Engineering Units

The pre-Startup safety audit is performed before the start-up of the Plant in oil and gas plant is conducted before gas/oil in. The PSSR is conducted for a new installation (green field project) or modified Installation/manufacturing (green Field project) to re-confirm that the installation is ready for start-up and hazard analysis performed. The PSSR cover…